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Some of them resisted vehemently, and many became
the nucleus of an insurrection which lasted in a desultory manner for
nearly two years; cost the lives of 21,000 insurgents and 1300
Japanese, and entailed upon Japan an outlay of nearly a million
sterling. Altogether, what with building 642 miles of railway, making
loans to Korea, providing funds for useful purposes and quelling the
insurrection, Japan was fifteen millions sterling $72,000,000 out of
pocket on Korea's account by the end of 1909. She had also lost the
veteran statesman, Prince Ito, who was assassinated at Harbin by a
Korean fanatic on the 26th of October, 1909.*

*Encylopaedia Britannica, (11th Edition); article "Japan," by
Brinkley.

ANNEXATION OF KOREA

Japan finally resolved that nothing short of annexation would suit
the situation, and that step was taken on August 22, 1910. At what
precise moment this conviction forced itself upon Japan's judgment it
is impossible to say, She knows how to keep her counsel. But it was
certainly with great reluctance that she, hitherto the exponent and
champion of Korean independence, accepted the role of annexation. The
explanation given by her own Government is as follows:

-"In its solicitude to put an end to disturbing conditions, the
Japanese Government made an arrangement, in 1905, for establishing a
protectorate over Korea and they have ever since been assiduously
engaged in works of reform, looking forward to the consummation of
the desired end. But they have failed to find in the regime of a
protectorate sufficient hope for a realization of the object which
they had in view, and a condition of unrest and disquietude still
prevails throughout the whole peninsula. In these circumstances, the
necessity of introducing fundamental changes in the system of
government in Korea has become entirely manifest, and an earnest and
careful examination of the Korean problem has convinced the Japanese
Government that the regime of a protectorate cannot be made to adapt
itself to the actual condition of affairs in Korea, and that the
responsibilities devolving upon Japan for the due administration of
the country cannot be justly fulfilled without the complete
annexation of Korea to the Empire."

"Thus the dynasty of sovereigns, which had continued in an unbroken
line from 1392, came to an end with the independence of this country,
whose national traditions and history had extended over four thousand
years, whose foundation as a kingdom was coeval with that of the
Assyrian empire; and the two last living representatives of the
dynasty exchanged their positions as Imperial dignitaries for those
of princes and pensioners of Japan."* Since that drastic step was
taken, events seem to have fully justified it. Under the able
management of Count Terauchi, the evil conditions inimical to the
prosperity and happiness of the people are fast disappearing.
Comparative peace and order reign; and there appears to be no reason
why the fruits of progressive civilization should not ultimately be
gathered in Japan's new province as plentifully as they are in Japan
herself.

*The Story of Korea, by Longford.

SITUATION IN 1911

The unstable element of the East Asian situation to-day is the
position occupied by Japan and Russia in Manchuria. Both powers
possess privileges there which will not be easily surrendered, and
which are likely, sooner or later, to prove incompatible with China's
autonomy. It was apprehended at the outset that Russia would not long
consent to occupy the place assigned to her by the Treaty of
Portsmouth, and that she would quickly prepare for a war of revenge.
Her statesmen, however, showed as much magnanimity as wisdom. On July
30, 1906, they signed with Japan a convention pledging the
contracting parties to respect all the rights accruing to one or the
other under the Portsmouth Treaty. If international promises can be
trusted, continuous peace is assured between the two powers. Russia,
however, is not only doubling the track of her Siberian Railway, but
is also building a second line along the Amur; while Japan will soon
command access to central Manchuria by three lines; one from Dalny to
Kwanchengtsz; another from Fusan via Wiju to Mukden, and a third from
the northeastern coast of Korea via Hoiryong, on the Tumen, to Kilin.

These developments do not suggest that when the lease of Liaotung and
the charter of the railways mature--in twenty-five years and thirty
years, respectively, from the date of their signature--either Japan
or Russia will be found ready to surrender these properties.
Meanwhile, the United States of America is gradually constituting
itself the guardian of China's integrity in Manchuria, and the
citizens of the Pacific slope, under the influence of the labour
question, are writing and speaking as though war between the great
republic and the Far Eastern empire were an inevitable outcome of the
future. This chimera is unthinkable by anyone really familiar with
the trend of Japanese sentiment, but it may encourage in China a
dangerous mood, and it helps always to foster an unquiet feeling. On
the whole, when we add the chaotic condition into which China is
apparently falling, it has to be admitted that the second decade of
the twentieth century does not open a peaceful vista in the Far East.

STEADY-POINTS

There are, however, two steady-points upon the horizon. One is the
Anglo-Japanese treaty: not the treaty of 1902, spoken of already
above, but a treaty which replaced it and which was concluded on
August 12, 1905. The latter document goes much further than the
former. For, whereas the treaty of 1902 merely pledged each of the
contracting parties to observe neutrality in the event of the other
being engaged in defence of its interests, and to come to that
other's assistance in the event of any third power intervening
belligerently, the treaty of 1905 provides that:

"Whenever in the opinion of either Japan or Great Britain, any of the
rights and interests referred to in the preamble of this agreement
are in jeopardy, the two Governments will communicate with one
another fully and frankly, and will consider in common the measures
which should be taken to safeguard those menaced rights or
interests."

"If, by reason of unprovoked attack or aggressive action, wherever
arising, on the part of any other power or powers, either contracting
party should be involved in war in defence of its territorial rights
or special interests mentioned in the preamble of this agreement, the
other contracting party will at once come to the assistance of its
ally, and will conduct the war in common, and make peace in mutual
agreement with it."

The "rights and interests" here referred to are defined as follows
in the preamble:

"The consolidation and maintenance of the general peace in the
regions of eastern Asia and of India."

"The preservation of the common interests of all powers in China by
insuring the independence and integrity of the Chinese empire and the
principle of equal opportunities for the commerce and industry of all
nations in China."

"The maintenance of the territorial rights of the high contracting
parties in the regions of eastern Asia and of India, and the defence
of their special interests in the said regions."

This remarkable agreement came into force from the date of its
signature, and its period of duration was fixed at ten years. During
its existence the two powers, England and Japan, are pledged to use
all endeavours for maintaining not only peace in the East, but also
the independence and integrity of China. The significance of such a
pledge is appreciated when we recall the dimensions of the British
navy supplemented by the Japanese, and when we further recall that
Japan, with her base of operations within easy reach of the Asiatic
continent, can place half a million of men in the field at any
moment. The second steady-point is China's financial condition. She
is the debtor of several Western nations, and they may be trusted to
avert from her any vicissitude that would impair her credit as a
borrower. Prominent among such vicissitudes is the dismemberment of
the country.

ENGRAVING: SEAL OF SESSHO, THE PAINTER



APPENDIX


1. CONSTITUTION OF THE EMPIRE OF JAPAN

TOKYO, FEBRUARY 11, 1889

CHAPTER I. THE EMPEROR

Article I. The Empire of Japan shall be ruled over by Emperors of the
dynasty, which has reigned in an unbroken line of descent for ages
past.

Article II. The succession to the throne shall devolve upon male
descendants of the Imperial House, according to the provisions of the
Imperial House Law.

Article III. The person of the Emperor is sacred and inviolable.

Article IV. The Emperor being the Head of the Empire the rights of
sovereignty are invested in him, and he exercises them in accordance
with the provisions of the present Constitution.

Article V. The Emperor exercises the legislative power with the
consent of the Imperial Diet.

Article VI. The Emperor gives sanction to laws, and orders them to be
promulgated and put into force.

Article VII. The Emperor convokes the Imperial Diet, opens, closes,
and prorogues it, and dissolves the House of Representatives.

Article VIII. In case of urgent necessity, when the Imperial Diet is
not sitting, the Emperor, in order to maintain the public safety or
to avert a public danger, has the power to issue Imperial Ordinances,
which shall take the place of laws. Such Imperial Ordinances shall,
however, be laid before the Imperial Diet at its next session, and
should the Diet disapprove of the said Ordinances, the Government
shall declare them to be henceforth invalid.

Article IX. The Emperor issues, or causes to be issued, the
ordinances necessary for the carrying out of the laws, or for the
maintenance of public peace and order, and for the promotion of the
welfare of his subjects. But no Ordinance shall in any way alter any
of the existing laws.

Article X. The Emperor determines the organisation of the different
branches of the Administration; he fixes the salaries of all civil
and military officers, and appoints and dismisses the same.
Exceptions specially provided for in the present Constitution or in
other laws shall be in accordance with the respective provisions
bearing thereon.

Article XI.



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